RAN feat. Tulus - Kita Bisa
ini lagunya bagus banget!
Aha, bet you fabulous Indonesian boys and girls know what those little cuties are… yup, the tempe. They are cheap and nutritious, on top of that, they are also delicious (coincidental rhyming, I swear!)—but have you ever wondered about their history? I came across some interesting stuff, so let’s get to know tempe because foods are wonderful.The word tempe appears to have originated in Central Java, in today’s Indonesia. It is not derived from Chinese (as are the names of so many other Indonesian soyfoods) and it does not start with the prefix tau or tao (as do tauci, tauco, taugé, taujiong, tahu, takua). (Astuti 1999, p. 2-15).“In Javanese literature, the word kedelai (written as kedele in Javanese), was first recorded in the Serat Sri Tanjung manuscript, believed to have been written in the 12th or 13th centuries.” (Astuti 1999, p. 3).1815 – The earliest known reference to tempe is found in the Serat Centhini manuscript. This document was first cited for its early reference to tempe in History of Tempeh, by Shurtleff & Aoyagi (July 1984, p. 9; May 1985, p. 9), then in The Book of Tempeh, 2nd ed., by Shurtleff & Aoyagi (1985, p. 145, 169). The story in the manuscript is set in the reign of Sultan Agung (1613-1645) and the descriptions purport to be of that time, so it is possible that tempeh existed in Java in the early 1600s. A more detailed explanation and translation was given by Astuti (1999, p. 4-15).1875 – The earliest known reference to tempe by a European appears in the Javaansch-Nederduitsch Handwoordenboek, by J.F.C. Gericke and T. Roorda.1895 and 1896 – Two articles by the Dutchman H.C. Prinsen Geerligs (who lives in Java) usher in the era of scientific research on tempeh by European microbiologists and food scientists. The 1896 article (which is a German translation of his 1895 Dutch-language article) is the first to spell the word “tempeh” (with an “h” on the end). It is also the first to give the name of the tempeh mold as Rhizopus oryzae. But other early Western authors, especially the Dutch, use the spelling témpé (Gericke and Rorda 1875; Heyne 1913) or tèmpé (Vorderman 1902; Stahel 1946).1900 – The Dutchman Dr. P.A. Boorsma, who lives in Java and did original laboratory tests, publishes the first detailed description (in Dutch) of the traditional Indonesian process for making Tempe kedeleh (soybean tempeh).1905 – Dr. Kendo Saito, a professor in the Plant Physiology Laboratory of the Botanical Institute at Tokyo Imperial University, first describes (in German) and illustrates what is today considered to be the main tempeh microorganism, Rhizopus oligosporus. He did not, however, mention tempeh (Zentralblatt fuer Bakteriologie 14:623-27).1912 – Dr. Ryoji Nakazawa, the great Japanese microbiologist, is the first Japanese to study tempeh. He asks a person from Southeast Asia to bring him samples of tempeh and oncom (ontjom, made from peanut presscake); he analyzes their microorganisms. He was working at the Taiwan High Commissioner’s Office Central Research Laboratory at the time.1926 – Dr. Nakazawa takes a research trip to Java and Sumatra, where he collects 22 samples of soy tempeh and oncom from various markets and small manufacturers. He and Takeda analyze the microorganisms used and in 1928 publish “On the filamentous used to make ontjom and tempeh in the South Pacific,” in Japanese in Nihon Nogei Kagakkai Shi (4:252-63).1931 – The first English-language information about tempeh appears in Vegetables of the Dutch East Indies, by J.J. Ochse (p. 391). He describes the tempeh-making process in detail and says that the mold used is Aspergillus oryzae.1936 – In about this year (according to van Veen 1962) a group of missionaries from Travancore, a poor region of southern India, wanted to make and introduce soy tempeh. For 3 weeks van Veen gave them short courses in how to make tempeh. When the missionaries returned to Travancore they made tempeh and it was fine “but the Indian population did not have any interest in this unknown fermentation product and the experiment failed.” This is the earlist known introduction of tempeh to India.1946 April – ENTI (Eerste Nederlandse Tempe Industrie), the first tempeh-making company in Europe is founded by a Dutch couple whose last name was Wedding; they had learned how to make tempeh while living in Indonesia. The origins and history of this company are shrouded in the mists of time; it is not clear when they actually started (perhaps 1948) and when they started to sell the tempeh they made.1946 Dec. – The first English-language article specifically about tempeh is written by Gerold Stahel, director of the Agricultural Experiment Station in Paramaribo, Surinam (a Dutch colony). He wrote: “Here in Surinam, as in the East Indies, most of the soybeans are consumed in this form.” This was also the earliest known article about tempeh published in the United States (in the Journal of the New York Botanical Garden), and the earliest reference to tempeh in Latin America.1944 – Dr. Masahiro Nakano (age 37), one of Dr. Nakazawa’s youngest but eventually best-known students of microbiology, goes to Japan’s National Food Research Institute (NFRI) (Shokuryo Kenkyujo) in Tokyo and creates a Department of Applied Micro-biology. After World War II (starting in about 1946) Dr. Nakano and his student, Teruo Ohta, introduce tempeh to Japan. They are the first to make and serve tempeh in Japan and they wrote numerous articles about this food (Nakano 1959; Ohta, Ebine & Nakano 1964; Ohta 1965, Nakano 1967, Ohta 1971; Watanabe, Ebine & Ohta 1971, etc.).1950 June – P.M.L. Tammes (in Dutch) gives the first detailed discussion of Indonesian starter culture (ragi) and how ragi is used to make tempeh.1950 – Van Veen and Schaefer are the first to spell the word “tempeh” in an English-language article. The final “h” was added prevent the word from being pronounced “temp.” The new spelling quickly caches on. Steinkraus et al. (1960) are the first in the United States to spell it “tempeh.” Most Westerners feel that correct pronunciation is more important than correct spelling. However most Indonesians now spell the word “tempe,” which is the correct spelling in their language.1958 – Scientific research on tempeh in the United States begins when Ms. Bwee Hwa YAP of Indonesia begins to work with Dr. Keith H. Steinkraus, a top microbiologist, and his Cornell group at Geneva, New York. The first of their many pioneering papers is published in Dec. 1960.1959 Jan. – Firma E.S. Lembekker is founded in Amsterdam; it is Europe’s 2nd earliest tempeh maker.Source: Soy Info Center. By William Shurtleff and Akiko Aoyagi.